The following list of terms are considered important in the field
of corrections, forensic psychology and the criminal justice system.
Criminological approach, movement, or theory that criticizes and
seeks to reduce the use of punitive responses to crime. While the
ideal type of abolitionism would seem by definition to be concerned
with the abolition of incarceration, abolitionists argue that sanctions
must only be avoided as much as possible. Abolitionism emphasizes
the inclusion of the offender in conflict resolution processes,
such as restorative justice and victim-offender mediation, instead
of the exclusion of the offender in resolution processes, such as
confinement or incapacitation. Abolitionists argue that punishment
is only symbolic of justice, and does not represent adequate social
processes that do contribute to justice. In contrast to the top-down
form of justice, such as those decisions handed down by the court,
abolitionism focuses on the bottom-up processes of justice, such
as resolutions constructed directly between those involved in the
criminal act, such as the victim, offender, and community. Abolitionism
criticizes the language of crime, as well, arguing that because
penal intervention stigmatizes, classifies, and labels individuals
according the offences they have committed,
By viewing crimes as problematic events, one can provide the opportunity
for a solution; In contrast, by viewing crimes as crimes, one can
provide little opportunity for a solution except for that already
stated as "solving" crime, punishment. At a more basic
level, one can correct the behaviour (offence) but one cannot, in
a democratic society committed to civil-rights, correct the person
(offender). With the term "criminal," therefore, comes
the inexorable ideology of traditional crime-prevention strategies.
Another word for "dollar"
Texas Syndicate slang for a Mexican Mafia member
Slang for a corrections officer who smuggles in contraband substances in exchange for monetary payment
"Back Door Parole"
To die in prison. i.e. he got the back door parole
A fight to the death, or shoot to kill.
Refers to a cocaine addict
"Baby gangster," or someone who has never shot another
Hobbies or activities that kill time or help to whittle away one's prison sentence. For example, sewing, tattoos, drawing, etc..
Crips slang term for Blood members.
Booster sessions are encouraged by case managers and treatment
providers to be taken by inmates at particular risk to reoffend
after release. They are part of a broad risk management strategy
that includes the Stages of Change and Relapse Prevention. They
are a component of the regular "aftercare" many recently
released offenders, especially mentally-disordered offenders, should
receive in order to reduce the likelihood of recidivism.
Incarcerated sexual predators who prey on weaker inmates, called
Two consecutive life terms (30-year sentences) (or 25 year sentences before parole eligibility in Canada).
prison slang for a trip to a employment agency or recruiting agency for ex-convicts
Another term for the "county jail."
Correctional staff member, such as a psychiatrist, who is deemed
untrustworthy or unreliable. Inmates are cautious of "bugs"
and will seldom ever mention other inmates to them.
Term referring to depressant drugs, deleriants, or intoxicants.
Inmates that were selected by guards to assist correctional staff.
Tenders were meant to maintian order among the inmate population
(often through the use of force), as well as serve as intelligence
gatherers. Such people were also called "inmate guards."
Up until 1983, building tenders outnumbered and successfully monitored
the Texas Syndicate in Texas prisons. However, in 1980, Chief Federal
District Judge William Wayne Justice ruled that such a system was
unconstitutional, set after the prison lawsuit of Ruiz v. Estelle.
Having relied on the system unconditionally for so long, Texas prisons
were plunged into a crisis, and two and a half years after the building
tender system was abolished, Texas Syndicate membership rose from
56 to 1,400.
Hanging one's self
"Busted a cap"
Shot at another person.
Fraudulent gang member
Inmate dorm bed or single bunk.
Gang term for prisons
Term meaning "Brother," especially for Raza Unida
To get killed.
Old nostalgic term referring to convicts calling home from prison. i.e.: using a "cell-phone" (calling home)
Term used by the Sorenos prison gang to refer to their rivals,
the Nortenos or La Nuestra Familia.
Texas Syndicate term for Corpus Christi, Texas.
Hispanic gang term for Fighting. Spanish for "Hard hits."
Prison or gang term for Heroin.
"Chomo" (or "Cho-Mo")
Police officers, or prison guards
Texas Syndicate term for El Paso.
Gang term referring to getting along well with a homeboy, not looking
Canadian serial killer and sexual molester who lived in Burnaby,
British Columbia (a suburb of Vancouver) during the time of his
murders. Olson was notorious for taking advantage of the RCMP (which
patrols the greater Vancouver area and outlying districts), by negotiating
a deal whereby he would receive $10,000 for each body he identified
to homicide detectives. The money went to his wife and family, as
convicted felons are not allowed to keep it serving their sentence.
Control Units are sections of a maximum or supermaximum security
facility, and most fully characterize the notion of incapacitative
deterrence for the most dangerous and criminally-minded offenders
in the prison syste. Control Units operate on a panoptical design;
cells are arranged around a central security booth that lies on
the ground floor. The booth's vantage point allows the constant
observation of all cells at the same time through the use of security
cameras and sound systems. Sometimes the security booths have computerized
access to detailed case-reports of every prisoner in the unit. Prisoners
are confined to their cells for 23 hours a day, and are allowed
1 hour of exercise in a tightly guarded and controlled exercise
yard. For a more detailed account of Control Unit, see the section
Crank is one of the many street words for methamphetamine. "Cranking
up," however, is a term sometimes used in prison to refer to
the administration of a substance by hypodermic needle. The hypodermic
needle itself is sometimes called a "spike."
A doctor or physician, someone who diagnoses illness.
An empirically-derived, changeable risk factor present in an offender
upon assessment that is used for purposes of risk assessment, prison
classification, prison reclassification, treatment, and release.
Criminogenic needs are also known as "dynamic needs,"
and include two types: stable dynamic needs, such as long-standing
attitudes conducive to violence, chronic alcoholism, or a sexual
preference to small male children, and acute dynamic needs,
such as stress, recent divorce, hostility, or acute symptoms of
Custody Rating Scale
Canadian risk scale used by Correctional Services of Canada for
purposes of intake assessment and classification to custody and
security level. The Custody Rating Scale consists of a variety of
empirically-derived risk factors, subdivided into three categories,
institutional adjustment, public safety, and escape risk.
Incarcerated sexual predators who prey on weaker inmates, called
Dancing on the blacktop
Prison slang for "two dollars." Also the name of a mainly-youth
Aboriginal prison gang operating in the Canadian Prairies.
Another term for child molester or pedophile.
A learning theory of crime introduced by Edwin Sutherland. Involves the association with peers, social incentives, and role-modelling.
Prison slang for "solitary confinement."
"Doing the Dutch"
Prison term for committing suicide.
Eastern Penitentiary Pennsylvania
Commonly known as "Cherry Hill," Pennsylvania's Eastern
Penitentiary was founded in 1829 and was 141 years old when it closed
in 1970. As the founding model of the Pennsylvania prison system,
Cherry Hill confined inmates to a separate cell, where he or she
ate, slept, worked, and repented alone. Religious penance was taught,
and the virtues of thinking and acting righteously, forbidding evil
thoughts, and praying frequently in their cells. In 1842, Charles
Dickens observed prisoners in solitary confinement at Eastern Penitentiary,
reflecting upon the inhuman character of the inmates and the paranoia
of being constantly under surveillance, in his anti-American novel,
Martin Chuzzlewit. (Grass S, 2000. " Narrating the cell: Dickens
on the American prisons." Journal of English and Germanic
Philology, v.99, no.1)
Prison slang that refers to someone who buys and sells stolen goods
Prison slang for trying to manipulate the system in one's favour. For example, enlisting the help of prisoners' rights groups in prison, over-reporting or falsely-reporting institutional assaults and victimizations, etc.
Prison slang referring to th act of repeatedly transferring a "problem-inmate" from facility-to-facility or unit-to-uint as a security precaution. i.e.: he's constantly getting put on the "ghost-train"
Prison gang term for a contract killing, or "hit."
"Half a Yard"
Prison slang for "fifty dollars."
Prison slang for a 10 year sentence. A "Hamburger with fries" refers to a 20-year sentence.
Prison term for developing a protective, sexual relationship with
another inmate, providing some resistance to the threat of being
victimized by continuing rapes with more inmates. These may appear
as consenting homosexual relationships to staff, but the "inmate
code" often prevents prisoners from telling the truth, or "crying
wolf" about their "protectors."
Prison slang for a Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) Officer
Incarcerated sexual predators who prey on weaker inmates, called
Prison slang for an inmate in prison who behaves like a guard
Prison slang for "meal-time."
"Killing your number"
Prison slang for serving one's time or getting out on parole.
Prison slang for a contraband letter.
A pardon or commutation of sentence.
Prison slang for an area of the prison that is reserved for or
encouraging of corporal punishment
Prison slang referring to an inmate who smuggles in and possesses
contraband and illicit substances.
Maxing out refers to the practice of releasing or transferring inmates from jail (or from one facility to another) due to overcrowding problems and capacity issues.
Prison slang for an old-fashioned escape attempt
Someone who attacks children
"On the Road"
Slang for being finally out of prison
The Pass System is a Canadian program similar to a temporary absence,
where inmates are allowed to leave prison, with a correctional staff
escort, for humanitarian, health, rehabilitative, or medical reasons.
Frequent leaves are granted for family visits, education and employment
opportunities, and recreational activities such as sports events.
For those serving life in prison for committing murder, they must
first be granted permission by Canada's National Parole Board. After
an inmate has served six months of his sentence, he or she is eligible
to leave on a temporary absence without a correctional escort. The
program has a 99% success rate, although the few breaches that have
occurred have proven disastrous, including murderer Daniel Gingras's
"birthday" pass that allowed him to escape and kill two
One's prison cell (UK)
Medical technique used to measure sexual deviant arousal. Consists
of applying an elastic band around the subject's penis, and measuring
the variation in tumescence, or girth, of the band before and after
a series of sexually-deviant and non-sexually deviant stimuli. Stimuli
include videos, pictures, or audio recordings of situations depicting
varying degrees of deviant content, such as rape scenes, naked children,
or violence against females during sexual intercourse.
Prison slang for throwing or dumping a bucket of excrement on a correctional officer.
Prison slang for someone sexually-oriented to females on the outside,
but becomes sexually-oriented to males on the inside.
Someone suffering from psychopathy. Psychopathy is a classifiable
personality disorder endemic to forensic psychology, and is not
included in medical practice's mental disorder manual, the DSM-IV.
Psychopathy was originally coined by psychologist Harvey Cleckley,
in his book the Mask of Sanity. Cleckley described someone
who was sane on the outside, but particularly brutal, insensitive,
impulsive, manipulative, and socially deviant on the inside. Psychopaths
are pathological liars, and strive to manipulate others for personal
gain. They do not feel the standard levels of remorse following
antisocial hurtful acts.
Approximately 25% of the federal inmate population (in Canada)
is psychopathic, and approximately 90% of those psychopaths can
be diagnosed with Antisocial Personality Disorder (APD). However,
psychopathy differs from APD in that APD mainly involves the more
impulsive, behavioural features of the disorder, while psychopathy
involves both the behavioural and the cognitive and interpersonal
features of the disorder.
The standard mechanism of classifying or measuring psychopathy
in individuals today is Canadian researcher Robert Hare's "Psychopathy
Checklist Revised" (PCL-R),
a dynamic and static risk assessment instrument that is validated
across many different cultures, countries, and somewhat between
both genders, and consistently predictive of prison misconduct,
general recidivism, and violent recidivism. It is also predictive
of sexual recidivism, especially when a diagnosis of psychopathy
is combined with a positive diagnosis of sexual
Inmates subject to rape, usually white, younger, and more submissive
than most inmates.
Perform favors for a fellow convict, including sexual, in exchange
for protection or commissary goods.
Inmates who do not declare any gang-affiliations but who buddy-up inside prison for protection.
A recently-admitted inmate who is allowed to show up at reception
on his or her own.
To switch from one gang to another
Prison slang for "knife." The actual act of knifing someone
is known as a "shiving."
State Prison in California, Correctional Officers who administer
mass beatings to newly admitted convicts. At the California
Institution for Men at Chino, this group of guards called itself
SPONGE, for "Society for the Prevention of Niggers Getting
Slang for a peodophile
Son of Sam Law
The Son of Sam Law was passed in 1979, following the New York killing
spree of .44 caliber-killer David Berkowitz. Because Berkowitz had
in been a potential position of profiting from his crimes, the law
was passed, diverting funds earned by convicted felons to the victims
and the state.
Selling crack cocaine.
Slang for tobacco inside prison.
Texas Syndicate term for Houston.
"Special Handling Cases"
Special Handling cases are inmates that require special care, usually
psychiatric or medical in nature, and that demonstrate to correctional
staff that they are dealing with someone who requires additional
supervision. Such individuals may be suffering from suicidal thoughts
or may have recently experienced severe trauma or a psychotic reaction.
1995 statutes that deny those prisoners who sue the state many
inmate privileges if the action is found to be insubstantial or
malicious. Penalties include denying television, radio and entertainment
access as well as limiting snacks and cigarettes.
Gang term for graffiti, a communication device for gang members.
Statistical term referring to the proportion of ex-convicts who
desist from committing a new crime following release from custody.
Prison slang referring to an inmate who allies with an older, more
experienced inmate, possibly for protection or knowledge.
"Taking a nap"
Short jail sentence, usually for gang members.
Term for Heroin addict
Prison slang for an inmate who has died.
Prison slang for "committed suicide." Also known as "dumped"
or "knocked off." Someone who has committed suicide is
said to have "topped off."
Prison slang for rapist
Veteran gang member.
An inmate who has long since given up on bathing or showering.
Wolfpacks are recent parolees that have been recruited by prison
gang members sometime during their incarceration. Once released,
they carry out the orders from their imprisoned commanders, who
usually instruct them on generating revenue or carrying out contract
killings. They are trained in prison by higher-ranking gang members,
in vocabulary, symbols, hand-signals, proper dress, as well as how
to profit from criminal enterprise.